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In 1984 it was the British architect Sir Frank Duffy that started using FM in Europe when designing offices. ORBIT I and II are the famous studies that helped develop FM. In 1985 the English 'sister' of IFMA, AFM, was founded. Since then the development of FM in Europe has been very diverse. National culture, language, law and market structure have influenced the direction and form of FM strongly.
In 1987 the first exploratory meeting to create a European FM network was hosted by Mr. Bart Bleker in The Netherlands. In 1993 the European Facility Management Network was officially registered by NEFMA, the Dutch FM association now called FMN, the Danish FM association DFM, the British Centre for Facilities Management led by professor Keith Alexander (information taken from the notary act).
'The Juggler' is a classic video made by Steelcase explaining what FM was in these years.
From 1993 till 2002 each one of the 27 European national FM markets developed in its own pace and direction. In some countries FM was started by real estate or maintenance professionals. In other countries the focus was more on services. IFMA helped develop the European FM market by founding national chapters and organizing the World Workplace Europe conference. Several countries also founded a Centre for FM or developed a faculty for FM at universities.